A study by Open University (2019) assessed the economic impact of the budget for the ESA exploration programme that will be proposed to ESA Council at Ministerial level in November 2019.
Each€1 ESA invests in E3P industry creates €3 in immediate direct, indirect and induced economic impact, not taking into account spill-over effects. The total impact the four cornerstone initiatives are expected to generate nearly €5.4B in terms immediate direct, indirect and induced economic effects on total output.
Space exploration activities will generate substantial tax revenues for the European governments, on average leading to a return of €0.80 in tax revenues as income tax, taxes on products (including value added tax) and social security contributions, for each €1 euro invested in one of the European Exploration Envelope Programme (E3P) missions.
Each job sustained by ESA space exploration contracts to industry creates two additional jobs in the space and broader industry. Almost 19 thousand person years of work are expected to be sustained (directly and indirectly) in the following years thanks to the implementation of the E3P2 activities.